There is no assigned text, but I will provide references to useful books, papers, etc. I will assume for basic numerical analysis you can pick your own favourite text.

**Note:** I generally will not provide the papers in
class or as links on this page; instead it is up to you to find them.
The web is now a wonderful resource for finding papers. Preprints of
many papers can be found on the authors' websites---use a search engine
like Google (or now
Google Scholar) to find these.
Papers that appear in places like SIGGRAPH, ACM Transactions on
Graphics (TOG) and Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA) can be found
in the ACM Digital Library
(http://www.acm.org/dl) but you will
need to be logged into a UBC machine or go though the
proxy server.
Other journals to which UBC subscribes can be found by
their search
page; often you will find that recent articles were published
electronically and UBC has a subscription that lets you read them
online (like the ACM Digital Library).

**Please find the following articles and read them**:

- W. T. Reeves, "Particle systems---a technique for modeling a class of fuzzy objects", SIGGRAPH '83, pp. 359--375.
- K. Sims, "Particle animation and rendering using data parallel computation", SIGGRAPH '90, pp. 405--413. (But you can ignore the parallel computing bits---nobody uses Connection Machines anymore.)
- K. Perlin, "Improving noise", SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 681--682.
- D. Baraff and A. Witkin, "Large steps in cloth simulation", SIGGRAPH '98.
- E. Grinspun et al., "Discrete shells", SCA '03.
- J. F. O'Brien and J. K. Hodgins, "Graphical modeling and animation of brittle fracture", SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 137--146. (Note: get the corrected version from the first author's homepage, not the one in the ACM digital library.)
- J. F. O'Brien, A. W. Bargteil and J. K. Hodgins, "Graphical modeling and animation of ductile fracture", SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 291--294.
- E. Guendelman, R. Bridson, and R. Fedkiw, "Nonconvex rigid bodies with stacking", SIGGRAPH '03, pp. 871--878.
- D. Baraff, "Fast contact force computation for nonpenetrating rigid bodies", SIGGRAPH '94, pp. 23--34.
- D. Baraff, "Linear-time dynamics using Lagrange multipliers", SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 137--146.
- M. Kass and G. Miller, "Rapid, stable fluid dynamics for computer graphics", SIGGRAPH '90, pp. 49--57.
- R. Fedkiw, J. Stam, and H. W. Jensen, "Visual Simulation of Smoke", SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 15--22. (Note: there is a bug in the formulas given for the cubic interpolation: work it out yourself for safety.)
- D. Enright, S. Marschner, and R. Fedkiw "Animation and rendering of complex water surfaces", SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 736--744.

For an alternative look at rigid body dynamics, constraints, and simple elastic models, check out Physically Based Modeling course notes from SIGGRAPH 2001, by Andrew Witkin and David Baraff.

More advanced optional reading. The abbreviation "JCP" means Journal of Computational Physics, "Numer. Math." means Numerische Mathematik, and "jgt" is the Journal of Graphics Tools.

- C. W. Shu and S. Osher, "Efficient Implementation of Essentially Non-Oscillatory Shock Capturing Schemes", JCP 77 (1988), pp. 439--471. (This is where TVD Runge-Kutta was introduced)
- J. P. Wright, "Numerical instability due to varying time steps in explicit wave propagation and mechanics calculations", JCP 140 (1998), pp. 421--431. (Another reason not to trust methods near their standard stability limit)
- D. Ebert
*et al.*, "Texturing and modeling: a procedural approach", 1998, 2nd edition, AP Professional: Cambridge. (details the use of randomness in faking difficult effects efficiently) - B. Mirtich and J. Canny, "Impulse-based simulation of rigid bodies", Symp. on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1995.
- M. Lin and S. Gottschalk, "Collision detection between geometric models: a survey", Proc. of IMA Conference on Mathematics of Surfaces, 1998. (A reasonable starting place for learning more about collision detection)
- Guigue and Devillers, "Fast and robust triangle-triangle overlap test using orientation predicates", Journal of Graphics Tools, 8(1):25-42, 2003.
- A. Van Gelder, "Approximate simulation of elastic membranes by triangulated spring meshes", jgt 3(2), 1998, pp. 21--42. (A discussion of using mass-spring networks for elasticity)
- D. Terzopoulos and K. Fleischer, "Modeling inelastic deformation: viscoelasticity, plasticity, fracture", SIGGRAPH'88, pp. 269--278. (Also has a short appendix on how to treat the rigid body modes of motion separately from deformation, summarizing another paper by Terzopoulos and Witkin in Graphics Interface '88)
- J. Teran et al, "Finite Volume Methods for the Simulation of Skeletal Muscle", SCA 2003.
- A. Pentland and J. Williams, "Good vibrations: model dynamics for graphics and animation", SIGGRAPH '89, pp. 207--214.
- B. Mirtich, "Fast and accurate computation of polyhedral mass properties", jgt 1(2), 1996, pp. 31--50. (how to accurately compute inertia tensors for constant density polyhedra)
- S. R. Buss, "Accurate and efficient simulation of rigid body rotations", JCP 164 (2000), pp. 377--406.
- D. E. Stewart, "Rigid-body dynamics with friction and impact", SIAM Review 42(1), 2000, pp. 3--39. (A good theoretical review of numerical techniques for accurate rigid body simulation).
- J. B. Keller, "Impact with friction", Journal of Applied Mechanics, March 1986, 53, pp. 1--4. (A short discussion of how friction forces change during impact)