Chan, A., MacLean, K. E., McGrenere, J. (2005). "Learning and Identifying Haptic Icons under Workload." in Proceedings of the First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, WHC 2005, Pisa, Italy, 2005. Note: An extended version of this paper is available as a technical report (below).
This work addresses the use of vibrotactile haptic feedback to transmit background information with variable intrusiveness, when recipients are engrossed in a primary visual and/or auditory task. We describe two studies designed to (a) perceptually optimize a set of vibrotactile "icons" and (b) evaluate users' ability to identify them in the presence of varying degrees of workload. Seven icons learned in approximately 3 minutes were each typically identified within 2.5 s and at 95% accuracy in the absence of workload.