MacLean, K. E., Snibbe, S. S. (1999). "An Architecture for Haptic Control of Media." The 8th Annual Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, ASME / IMECE, Nashville, TN. Interval Research Corp TR# 1999-024.
Most haptic interfaces are designed with a desire to produce simultaneous perception across multiple senses, with haptic behaviors that complement the task at hand. However, software architectures for haptic interfaces often distribute a virtual model and tasks among multiple processes and CPUs. This functional segregation can reduce the quality of haptic experience, by hiding important details of the dynamic model and reducing the communication bandwidth between the haptic controller and the application. We present a means of closely coordinating a haptic interface with a virtual model, application content and other sensory displays. Our architecture features the ability to customize haptic behavior at a low level, in the dynamic relations among control parameters. Furthermore, we have located significant application control within the haptic process in order to facilitate effective bidirectional communication. We describe some applications for haptically manipulating dynamic media; and propose extensions to our architecture for increased generality, decreased code size and high-level programmability for efficient application development.