Generalized Biped Walking Control

ACM Transaction on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2010)

Stelian Coros     Philippe Beaudoin     Michiel van de Panne

University of British Columbia


Real-time physics-based simulation of walking. The method provides robust control across a range of gaits, styles, characters, and skills. Motions are easily authored by novice users.


We present a control strategy for physically-simulated walking motions that generalizes well across gait parameters, motion styles, character proportions, and a variety of skills. The control is real-time, requires no character-specific or motion-specific tuning, is robust to disturbances, and is simple to compute. The method works by integrating tracking, using proportional-derivative control; foot placement, using an inverted pendulum model; and adjustments for gravity and velocity errors, using Jacobian transpose control. High-level gait parameters allow for forwards-and-backwards walking, various walking speeds, turns, walk-to-stop, idling, and stop-to-walk behaviors. Character proportions and motion styles can be authored interactively, with edits resulting in the instant realization of a suitable controller. The control is further shown to generalize across a variety of walking-related skills, including picking up objects placed at any height, lifting and walking with heavy crates, pushing and pulling crates, stepping over obstacles, ducking under obstacles, and climbing steps.


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    author = {Stelian Coros and Philippe Beaudoin and Michiel van de Panne},
    title = {Generalized Biped Walking Control},
    journal = {ACM Transctions on Graphics},
    year = {2010},
    volume = {29},
    number = {4},
    pages = {Article 130}
   NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)
    GRAND NCE: Graphics, Animation, and New Media