Pasquero, J., Luk, J., Levesque, V., Wang, Q., Hayward, V., MacLean, K. E. (2007). "Haptically Enabled Handheld Information Display with Distributed Tactile Transducer." IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 4, pages 746-753, June 2007.
This paper describes the design, construction, and initial evaluation of a handheld information device that supports combined tactile and graphical interaction. The design comprises a liquid crystal graphic display co-located with a miniature, low-power, distributed tactile transducer. This transducer can create electronically-controlled lateral skin deformation patterns which give the sensation of sliding over small shapes. It is integrated within a slider mechanism to control scrolling. It also functions as a detent when pushing on it. Tactile feedback and the combination of visual and tactile feedback in a mobile context enable the development of new functions, such as multimodal navigation within large graphic spaces