MacLean, K. E., Shaver, M. J., Pai, D. K. (2002). "Handheld Haptics: A USB Media Controller with Force Sensing." in Proceedings of the IEEE VR2002 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS 2002), Orlando, FL, 2002.
We discuss design principles for a handheld haptic device, scenarios for their use, and our implementation of a portable handheld haptic device following these principles. Handheld devices offer unique challenges and opportunities for haptics: they are compact, simple and consequently low cost, while promising comfort, low fatigue, and affordances for many useful tasks such as controlling digital media. We also describe the implementation of a semi-portable handheld force feedback display consisting of single actuated degree of freedom, orthogonal force sensing, and a USB controller for ease of connectivity to a variety of hosts.