
Style Based Inverse Kinematics
SIGGRAPH 2004
Given example motion data, character poses are modeled as a probability
distribution over the space of possible poses. The probability distribution is modeled using
a gaussian process latent variable model. Given a set of constraints on the character,
i.e., left foot here and right hand there, the most likely pose that satisfies those constraints
is found using a gradientbased optimization method. This is based on a differentiable
likelihood objective function along with an added penalty term to enforce the constraints.

Segmenting Motion Capture Data into Distinct Behaviors
GI 2004
The goal here is to automatically segment a stream of human motion data into
distinct highlevel behaviors, e.g., walking, running, punching.
Three techniques are implemented and compared:
(1) Principal Component Analysis, taking the most significant r components,
and then segmenting where the remaining projection error increases sharply;
(2) Probabilistic PCA: use PPCA to represent a set of poses as a Guassian distribution,
then use the Mahalanobis distance to help define segmentation points.
(3) Guassian Mixture Model, as computed using using EMbased clustering.

A DataDriven Reflectance Model
SIGGRAPH 2003
Builds databased reflectance models that allow for easy interpolation
and extrapolation, in a perceptuallymeaningful way, to create new reflectance models.
Each of 104 example reflectance models has roughly 4,000,000 parameters; these are
first reduced to a 45dimensional vector using PCA. Secondly, nonlinear dimensionality
reduction ("manifold charting" in this case) is applied to map things onto a lower
dimensional 10D manifold. Some basic physics constraints still need to be taken
into account when backprojecting from the manifold back to the full space

Machine Learning for Computer Graphics: A Manifesto and Tutorial
Pacific Graphics 2003
An overview of what machine learning has to offer the graphics community,
with an emphasis on Bayesian techniques. Common misconceptions about
machine learning are addressed and a tutorial on Bayesian reasoning is included.

Motion Synthesis from Annotations
SIGGRAPH 2003
The core of this paper revolves around how to efficiently cutandpaste together
chunks of motion in order to satisfy annotation and position constraints.
In this context, annotations are labels that are assigned to parts
of motions, such as "wave", "pickup", or "crouch". Machine learning is used
to help automate the addition of annotations to the motions. Given motion examples
that are annotated by hand, a support vector machine classifier is constructed
for each type of motion.

Motion Texture: A TwoLevel Statistical Model for Character Motion
SIGGRAPH 2002
Given example human motion data (dancing motion in this case),
a twolevel statistical model is developed
for the motion. The bottom level consists of a collection
of "motion textons", and the top level consists of a matrix
of transition probabilities between the motion textons.
Each motion texton is modeled as a linear dynamical system.
There is a chickenandegg problem in deriving this twolevel
model from the data. Given motion data that is already segmented
into various motion textons, it would be easy to compute the LDS
"motion texton" model. Similarly, given a set of LDS motion texton
models, it would be easy to segment the motion into the most likely
motion textons. This chickenandegg problem is resolved by obtaining a
good (greedy) initial guess and then using EM. PCA is also applied
to reduce the dimensionality of the motion data.

Composable Controllers for PhysicsBased Character Animation
SIGGRAPH 2000
Developing control strategies for basic human or robot motions such as taking a step forward
or even maintaining balance while standing is a difficult problem
and thus a common strategy has been to develop individual controllers
by hand for these tasks. This paper looks at how multiple such controllers
can be made to work together. An oracle is developed for each controller
which, when given the current state of the body, can determine whether the controller
is competent to handle the current state. For example, a controller that
maintains a balance standing posture needs to know if to "give up" when a strong push
is given. Support vector machines are used to develop such willsucceed/willfail
oracles for a set of controllers.

Style Machines
SIGGRAPH 2000
A "stylistically parameterized" HMM model is extracted from example human motion data,
in this case for classicallytrained dance. A maximumlikelihood HMM is estimated
from the data using EM. Extra terms are added to the learning objective function
so that a stylistically parameterized model is produced, rather than a single
model fitted to all the data. This requires specification and initialization
of a generic model that will then be parameterized.
New motions are then synthesized as maximumlikelihood paths through the
HMM states, which have two Gaussian distribution models, one for the
character joint angles and and one for the joint angle velocities.

Sampling Plausible Solutions to Multibody Constraint Problems
SIGGRAPH 2000
A MarkovChain Monte Carlo algorithm is applied to sample from
a space of plausible animations that satisfy some particular goal.
The "probability" of an animation is modeled as the product
of a "plausibility" term and a constraintsatisfaction term.
The constraint terms and the Markovchain proposal distributions
both require careful design and experimentation.

A Morphable Model for the Synthesis of 3D Faces
SIGGRAPH 1999
Statisticallybased shape and texture models are developed for 3D face models.
The models are then used for 3D face reconstruction from single images,
or for generating new faces based upon meaningful interpolations and extrapolations.
3D shape and 2D texture data are obtained for 200 face models.
New shapes and textures can be expressed as a linear weighted interpolation
of the existing faces. The plausibility any given interpolated face
is computed by fitting a multivariate normal distribution to the 200 faces;
this is approximated using PCA. Care needs to be taken to
establish appopriate correct correspondences between the mesh of the generic morphable head
model and the mesh of the scanned 3D face examples. Similarly, careful preprocessing
must be applied to the textures to remove variations in illumincation, etc.

NeuroAnimator: Fast Neural Network Emulation
and Control of PhysicsBased Models
SIGGRAPH 1998
This paper demonstrates the possibility of replacing the numerical simulation
of physicsbased motion (take a swinging 4link chain for example) with
a neural network. Given training data that provides examples of
next_state = f (current_state, applied_forces), backpropagation
is employed to train a neural network to perform the next_state prediction.
Because the neuralnetwork gives a nicely differentiable form for the nextstate prediction,
it is possible to apply "backpropagation through time" to compute
(in an iterative fashion) the applied controls required to achieve a
given task. This is demonstrated with examples of parking a car, guiding
a lunar lander, and learning a swimming behavior for a virtual dolphin.
Preprocessing steps on the data are important in achieving the given results.

Metropolis Light Transport
SIGGRAPH 1997
MarkovChain Monte Carlo sampling is used to approximate global illumaination
integrals. To render an image, a sequence of light transport paths
are generated by randomly mutating a single current path. Each such
mutation is accepted or rejected to ensure that paths are sampled
according to the contribution they make to the ideal image.
The image is estimated by sampling many paths and recording their
locations on the image plane.

Specifying Gestures by Example
SIGGRAPH 1991
Statisticallybased recognition of single stroke stylus gestures is proposed.
A vector of 13 scalar features is extracted for every stroke.
The feature vector is then classified as one of N possible gestures
using a "linear machine" classifier, which determines the Bayes decision boundaries
under the assumption of Gaussian distributions. The Mahalanobis distance
can be used to reject "bad" gestures, although this is found to be less
than ideal in that it also rejects many seemingly good gestures.