CPSC 533C – Information Visualization Final Report


Juan Gabriel Estrada Alvarez

Department of Computer Science

University of British Columbia

201-2366 Main Mall

Vancouver BC Canada V6T1Z4



Abstract: The circulatory system is one of many complex dynamic systems that are yet not well understood. Health scientists have long been studying its signal to try and determine its behaviour and what can influence it. But studying a signal is difficult if you do not compare it to other signals from the same - or another similar - system. In turn, such comparison is difficult if, for each signal, its recording did not start at the beginning of some ebehaviour cyclef (which does not have to be the same for every signal). Some comparison techniques for dynamic system signals range from direct (perhaps measuring a edistancef between two signals) to utilizing clustering techniques to classify them. But such techniques may fail to convey meaningful information for raw signals that do not meet the condition mentioned above. Here an idea for utilizing clustering to classify heart signals is presented, and then a TimeSearcher based tool, ClusterTimeSearcher, is introduced for performing the task of clustering and visualizing such signals.


Keywords: clustering, dynamic systems, time series, visualization



1.      Introduction


Time series are a research focus of many scientists looking to explain the behaviour of dynamic systems that can be found in our everyday surroundings. The weather system is particularly of interest, for example, because its study may provide us with a better of understanding of climate change. But an interesting realization is that we are also excellent examples of complex dynamic systems. Health scientists have long been interested in finding the behaviour of our dynamic sub-systems to understand the overall (healthy) state of the whole. This is of benefit for properly diagnosing and consequently treating patients who may otherwise be unaware of their own condition or in cases where the underlying cause of illness is not well understood. Here we concentrate on the circulatory sub-system, although it is possible to generalize the ideas presented to other dynamic systems.


Researchers have been studying data obtained from the circulatory system in the form of cardiac rhythm for years. In particular, recorded cardiograms provide a type of time series representation (herein called just ea signalf) that can be used for analysis. Most of this analysis would come from the comparison of different signals for the purpose of discovering and classifying the underlying mechanisms that rule the behaviour of the circulatory system, ultimately resulting in ways of correctly diagnosing patients.


1.1.    Motivation


As heart disease is often one of the medical areas where doctors try to diagnose or narrow down the possibilities for what exactly may be going on with a patient, time is critical if the patient is affected by a severe illness. One of the things that most doctors would like to do in an easy - and not so cluttered - way is to analyze the heart signal (using cardiogram data or blood pressure data, among others). With an appropriate tool to do this, they might be able to perform faster and more accurate diagnoses. But it is only until recently that new technological advances have enabled researchers to gather enough data for heart signals long enough to do further study.


Now that the data is available we face other challenges in order to perform analysis. As mentioned above, much analysis is performed by comparison. However, comparison of raw signals is often not very meaningful if the signals involved are not all known to start at the beginning of some ebehaviour cyclef - possibly a different cycle for each signal. And without being able to meaningfully compare them, we cannot expect to be able to classify them properly. Another challenge is the scarcity of tools to properly visualize heart signals that would facilitate classification.


In the next section I propose to overcome the challenge of clustering by pre-processing the signals in order to remove the restriction mentioned above, and introduce an algorithm for clustering the signals. In section 3 I introduce ClusterTimeSearcher, a tool in development for clustering and visualizing the data to facilitate its study. Finally, Section 4 deals with some evaluation of the tool and some of the results obtained.



2.      Solution


2.1.    Signal pre-processing


In order to remove the restriction that all signals start at the beginning of some behaviour cycle, we need a different representation for the signals that is independent of time. Such a representation is then good for comparing signals if we assume that each signal is contained within its behaviour cycle. Thus, all we need is to find a function f that maps signals into such a time independent domain.


Here the Fourier Transform [1], a well known spectral analysis technique, is used in order to map the signals to the frequency domain. In particular, the power spectrum of signals – the plot of the magnitude of their Fourier Transform – is often used for analysis. Other techniques for analysis exist, such as wavelets, but may require a bigger computational complexity. The main focus here is to use clustering to classify heart signals, and so the Fourier Transform should suffice for this task.


2.2.    Clustering


Utilizing clustering on a set of signals would ideally group them into clusters that correspond to the same estate of the heart.f Examining a cluster would then mean to examine the individual signals contained in it. But what kind of clustering should be done largely depends on the properties of the data set at hand. In this case, our data set consists of the power spectra of heart signals containing pulse interval information. These pulse interval data is a series of values corresponding to the time each heartbeat took to happen.


The comparison would then take place by seeing how similar any two power spectra are. Since power spectra are graphic representations, shape plays the role of seeing how close any two spectra are. Thus our criterion for similarity is the closeness of shapes. A good distance measure that takes shape into account is the normalized version of the root-mean-square distance (RMDS) [2].


For any two series y = y1,..,yi,..,yN and z = z1,..,zi,..,zN:

Where ymax and zmax are the maximum values found in y and z, respectively.


Here, a straightforward agglomerative clustering algorithm is used as in [3]. A high level overview of the implementation can be seen in Figure 1, and the distances are calculated using the equation above.


Let S be a set of signals, E a set with all elements of S, and C an empty set of clusters

Let T be a lower triangular matrix of real values



     For each pair of signals Si and Sj in S, i<j;

Calculate their distance and store it in Tij;

While the lowest value in T is less than a threshold and E has more than one element;

          Choose lowest Tij;

          Create a new cluster Ck containing Ei and Ej;

          Delete Ei and Ej from E;

          Delete rows i and j from T;

          Delete columns i and j from T;

          Add a new row and column k in T;

          For each element El left in E;

Calculate distance between Ck and El and store it in Tkl;

          Store Ck in both C and E;



Figure 1. The clustering algorithm used.



3.      ClusterTimeSearcher


ClusterTimeSearcher builds upon Harry Hochheiserfs TimeSearcher [4] tool, an application to perform dynamic querying of time series. However, the focus with ClusterTimeSearcher is to be able to examine how elements in a cluster relate to each other, and querying takes a secondary, non-essential role, making it an added bonus.


ClusterTimeSearcher, still in development, allows the user to visualize a set of signals and to see any accompanying information about a signal such as an id, when it was recorded, and any other relevant attributes known beforehand, if available. Clustering is done on demand using the algorithm described in the last section, and each cluster contains information about the signals within it.


This tool is implemented in Java 2, and makes use of Java2D as well as the Piccolo toolkit developed by the HCI Lab at the University of Maryland. The interface is implemented mostly using Swing. It is integrated with TimeSearcher in order to provide the basic querying capabilities.


3.1.    Related work


There are few tools with the aim of visualizing time series, and currently I am aware of only one other tool that clusters time series data for visualization purposes. The application developed by van Wijk and van Selow in [3] provides the user with a visualization of average data patterns, each corresponding to a cluster of time series data and uses a calendar view in order to indicate, with a color scheme, which days of the year fall in which cluster (see Figure 2). However, it does not allow the user to have a detailed view of each time series.



Figure 2. The calendar view. The right half of the display contains color coded patterns, one per cluster. The left half displays a calendar where each day is color coded with the same color as the pattern representing the cluster it belongs to.


TimeSearcher [4] is one of few visualization tools that concentrate on time series in a general sense. Its main feature is that it allows a user to explore a set of time series data by using the idea of etimeboxese in order to limit the set of graphs explored. The user places a timebox on an overview graph, and the display is updated to present the user only those graphs which data points cross the timebox.



Figure 3. A timebox query in TimeSearcher.


Carlis and Konstan [5] introduce a spiral visualization technique for serial periodic data, which displays data along a spiral to highlight serial attributes along the spiral axis and periodic ones along the radii, but it is not suitable for our needs.


Other existing tools focus on specific cases, generally financial data. Because such tools do not consider time series in general, they are classified independently of pure time series categories, and it is generally difficult to find information about them by doing research on pure time series visualization.


3.2.    The application


ClusterTimeSearcher takes as input a text file specified by the user that follows a predefined formatting, consisting of information about the data set, followed by individual records for each signal, which may contain specific known attributes of the signal besides its main time components. After processing the information from the input file, the tool updates the display with a visualization of the data set signals.


The tool is comprised of 4 information displays – the query panel, the display panel, the items list panel, and the details panel. In the query panel (Figure 4), the user can get a general graphical overview of all the signals in the data set. The signals plotted in the panel are surrounded by an overall data envelope that puts them into perspective against the minimum and maximum values for each data point. This panel allows the user to use the same type of basic queries that TimeSearcher provides, updating the display in the same manner, and also allows the user to highlight any particular signal. Highlighting a signal displays a tooltip with information about the signalfs id and the value at the time point under the cursor and brings focus to that signal in both the display and items list panels, updating the details panel to reflect the information available about the signalfs attributes.


Figure 4. The query panel. A user can draw timeboxes in order to limit the set of signals displayed.


The display panel contains a list of signal plots, one for each signal (see Figure 5). Each plot is titled using the corresponding name in the items list panel. If the user has performed a query using a timebox, then the plots displayed are only for the signals matching the box. The user can browse through the plots. Focus is brought for the signal at the top of the display in both the query and items list panels by highlighting and displays its attributes in the details panel.



Figure 5. The display panel shows the plots for the signals that match a query or for all signals if no query is placed.


The items list panel displays a list of the names for each signal that is plotted in the display panel. The list is scrollable and selectable (see Figure 6). Selecting a name in the list displays the available details of the corresponding signal in the details panel, brings it into focus at the top of the display panel and highlights its corresponding plot in the query panel.



Figure 6. The items list panel shows the names for the signals that match a query or for all signals if no query is placed.


The details panel (Figure 7) displays information available about a signal whenever it is brought into focus in the query, display, or items list panels. This information is supplied by the user along with each record in the input file.



Figure 7. The details panel is updated each time a signal is brought into focus.


The user has the option of performing clustering by selecting it from a combo box. The options present the user with a choice of the distance measure to be used. Currently two distance measures are supported: root-mean-square distance and its normalized version as described in section 2. When clustering is selected, the four display panels are updated to reflect the number of clusters produced. Each cluster is represented in the query and display panels with a pattern derived from the different signals inside it.


Because data for heart signals is usually recorded for long periods of time, the user may select averaging of data points in order to avoid cluttering in the query and display panels. By default, no averaging is done since it may result in missing important details in the visualization.


3.3.    Scenario of use


Researchers who are interested in categorizing heart signals using this tool are not limited to choose the power spectrum as an alternative representation of the signal. The choice here of using the spectra was made largely at an intuitive level, and so the representation of the signals utilized for clustering is independent of the application, allowing the user to choose his/her own representation depending on the situation and need or just for experimentation of what representation may work best.


After choosing a representation, the user performs a transformation of all signals in the data set and produces an input file following the data format specified for ClusterTimeSearcher (at the moment, it is the same data format used by TimeSearcher) and proceeds to load it in the tool. Here a scenario of use is described using the personal experience of the author, with the corresponding figures presented at the end of the paper.


First, normalization and standardization of the heart signals in the data set was performed prior to transforming them using the Fourier method. The purpose is to be able to meaningfully compare heart signals recorded from both rabbits and rats, given that their heartbeat rates are different (an average of 328 beats per minute for a rat and 205 for a rabbit). The power spectra were derived using a Discrete Fast Fourier Transform algorithm.


After loading the input, the first thing noticed was that the signals in the data set were too long to be displayed properly and so averaging of points was activated. It was clear since the beginning that it would be difficult to perform analysis by visualizing many signals that are all very different. This means that with the usual plot of the signal it would not be meaningful to use the query function. Nonetheless, examining the signals in this way it is possible to tell periods of time for each entity in the data set where heart rate increased on decreased. The data available contained some details about the state of the entity (either at rest or in activity) and whether they are under the influence of artificially induced unstable blood pressure (herein called SAD). It was noticed that for some entities, periods of increase in heart rate did not mean that they were in activity, but seemed to be more related to SAD in those cases where the entity was at rest. Also, abrupt changes often characterized the signals recorded under SAD conditions (see Figure 8).


Switching to the Frequency view, the power spectra are now presented (See Figure 9). In this view, it was easier to compare signals, since all the author had to look for was similar shapes. Similarly, it was more meaningful to use querying in this view. But since grouping similar shapes is what clustering is for, clustering was immediately activated.


8 clusters were produced and their patterns displayed. After doing some examination of the patterns, it was found interesting that some of the clusters had patterns where the lowest frequency had a really low magnitude as opposed to clusters which lowest frequency was higher than any other (see Figure 10). Having noticed before clustering about such signals, the author decided to investigate one of these clusters (See Figure 11). The signals in the cluster all had power spectra with near zero magnitude on the lowest frequency, or the lowest frequency had lower magnitude than the following ones in most cases. More than half of the signals in this cluster were under SAD. Going back to the time domain, it was observed that even those signals which were not under SAD exhibited the same irregularity and rare abrupt changes as the ones under it (see Figure 12). This leads to the strong suspicion that this cluster characterized entities with unstable blood pressure, regardless of whether the condition was induced, and that generally if the lowest frequency is near zero in the power spectrum, then it is likely due to unstable blood pressure.


It should be noted that the author has no experience in cardiology, and so the interpretation above is not guaranteed to be correct. Nonetheless, it is a fact that some condition was a common factor of these signals.



4.      Evaluation


It had originally been planed that a domain expert would take a look at the tool and see if it would be useful for him in his job. Unfortunately, contact was not possible with this individual, and there is thus no user evaluation available. Here we comment about some of the strengths and weaknesses that characterize ClusterTimeSearcher.


4.1.    Strengths


Being able to visualize several signals at the same time for the purpose of comparison is extremely useful. Moreover, the tool provides enough visual cues to know precisely which signal is currently in focus. Being able to see details on demand about known attributes of a signal is also very convenient. Since screen real space is limited, allowing averaging of points on demand was a really good idea. If the data is too cluttered in the display, then this feature can help alleviate the problem.


Having the ability to switch between representations of a signal is also convenient, as it allows the user to relate the time independent representation of a signal to its normal plot. It is also useful to have individual plots for each of the signals, allowing the user to concentrate on only one signal at a time if desired.


Clustering turned out to be useful in the authorfs case. As was described in the scenario of use, it allowed confirming that the same condition seems to affect signals following a certain pattern at the lowest frequencies of their power spectra. The potential of the tool in this sense is very good. The clustering algorithm used in the tool is reasonable in terms of speed.


Moreover, the tool turned out to be useful for financial data as well, where most of the time we have time series that begin at the same time. The clustering algorithm of this tool is successful in capturing the shape of a pattern and grouping together time series that follow that pattern. This suggests potential uses on other types of data and not just heart signals.


4.2.    Weaknesses


As is the case with many other tools, ClusterTimeSearcher is not perfect. One of the main drawbacks is in the length of the signals that can be displayed, that is, resolution is poor. It works well for short signals, but signals with more than about 250 time points will begin cluttering the display and many details are lost. Thus it turns out to be impractical for very long signals, since averaging in order to diminish cluttering will result in possibly important details being lost. In particular, short abrupt changes that may be of importance to the study of a signal will disappear in the display. One way to fix this might be to replace averaging by taking the maximum or minimum of a set of points, but time constraints did not permit verifying this.


Another solution is too allow averaging but provide a zooming capability to both the query and display panels, whereby the user could zoom into a region of a plot in order to see all the data points contained with full resolution. This approach was the one originally proposed for this project, but unfortunately the integration of ClusterTimeSearcher with the original TimeSearcher turned out to be very difficult and time consuming, and has thus not yet been implemented.


One inconvenience that the tool currently suffers from, due to the same reason just mentioned, is that in order to examine the signals inside a cluster, it is necessary to load a new input file containing those signals. At the present time, ClusterTimeSearcher produces automatically an input file for each cluster constructed when clustering is finished.


In terms of performance, although browsing, querying and clustering are reasonably fast, the tool currently hogs a large amount of processing power. It managed to put a load of over 90% constantly on an AMD Athlon XP 3200+ CPU, and can be slow to refresh the display at times. Running it in parallel with other applications results in a significant system slowdown.


Finally, because of the absence of domain expert user evaluation of the tool, it cannot be guarantied that the kind of clustering done is correct for the data set utilized, and this work is largely based on following the authorfs intuition.



5.      Future work


ClusterTimeSearcher could be improved in order to reduce the cognitive load of the user. Color coding could be introduced as was the case in [3]. One can imagine the plots in the display panel being coloured in the background according to the cluster they belong to, with the same color used for the corresponding entry in the items list panel. Also, the cluster mode of the tool should be able to not only display the patterns, but also allow the user to browse through the plots of the signals corresponding to a pattern on demand.


Other methods for clustering should be evaluated to determine if better results can be achieved that way. In particular, these methods can be integrated into ClusterTimeSearcher in addition to the bottom-up algorithm utilized in order to allow the tool to really be able to cover a wide range of data types and be of benefit to researchers in general.


Solving the limitation of poor resolution that also affected the original TimeSearcher is of interest in order to provide a successful tool for visualization. Besides zooming, binning, as illustrated in [6], could be one such method allowing signals of arbitrary length to be displayed.


At the present time, ClusterTimeSearcher only handles clustering of univariate time series data. A future extension can take into account the inclusion of clustering techniques or distance measures for analysing multivariate time series. We could then explore heart signals based on both pulse interval and blood pressure.


Performance should also be taken into account. ClusterTimeSearcher needs to be tweaked for speed. Finally, integrating the tool with all modes of querying in TimeSearcher can provide a useful extension to the analysis capabilities provided.



6.      Conclusions and Lessons learned


Here a tool that provides clustering capabilities for analysis and classification of time series data has been proposed and a prototype developed based on the original TimeSearcher application. Even though no domain expert feedback was available, the tool seemed to be useful in determining some properties of the heart signals contained in the data set examined, suggesting that further investigation may be worth.


During the course of this project, one of the main challenges and lessons learned is that the number of clusters that is appropriate for visualization is largely a subjective matter. There are no stone-written rules that dictate what the correct number is. It can vary greatly depending on the data set and situation and hand. In general, it can be said that once the distance measure starts producing dissimilarity values that are too high, it is time to stop and output as result the clusters constructed up to that point.


Trying to build on top of an existing tool is not always a good idea. This is certainly true when code documentation is scarce and when appropriate software design techniques have not been important in the development process of previous solutions, since it makes extension and integration with other tools very difficult and at times impossible without a facelift.


User feedback from domain experts is essential. Without it, the usefulness of an application cannot be guaranteed at all.



7.      Acknowledgments


The author would like to thank the following people for their contribution to this project:


-         Dr. Tamara Munzner, for her advice and a great introduction to the world of infovis;

-         Dr. Harry Hochheiser, for kindly providing the source code for TimeSearcher;

-         Dr. Bruce van Vliet, for having provided the data set with which the scenario of use was produced.



8.      References


[1] An Introduction to Fourier Theory by Forrest Hoffman. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee.

[2] Cluster Analysis - What is it? A course on Multivariate Statistics by Alan Fielding, Dept. of Biological Sciences at Manchester Metropolitan University.

[3] Van Wijk, J.J.; Van Selow, E.R. Cluster and calendar based visualization of time series data. In Information Visualization, 1999. (InfoVis '99) Proceedings. 1999 IEEE Symposium on, p. 4-9, 140


[4] Hochheiser, H. Shneiderman, B. Visual Queries for Finding Patterns in Time Series Data. University of Maryland, Computer Science Dept. Tech Report #CS-TR-4365, UMIACS-TR-2002-45


[5] John V. Carlis and Joseph A. Konstan. Interactive visualization of serial periodic data. In UIST'98 Conference Proceedings, pages 29-38, New York, NY, 1998. ACM Press.


[6] Berry, Lior. BinX - Dynamic exploration of time series. Submitted in fulfillment of the CPSC533C Project component. Dept. of Computer Science at The University of British Columbia, 2004.





Figure 8. ClusterTimeSearcher in action.



Figure 9. ClusterTimeSearcher in action.



Figure 10. ClusterTimeSearcher in action.



Figure 11. ClusterTimeSearcher in action.


Figure 12. ClusterTimeSearcher in action.