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KLA Background Notes
KLA Background Notes

These are rough notes and quotes on literature sources of interest for KLAs.

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Note on evaluation of KLAs (that is, judging the pedagogical value of KLAs): Pollard and Forbes evaluate their "hands-on labs without computers"; might consider using the Pollard & Forbes paper as a guideline for action-research-style evaluation in classes. See last couple pages of paper.

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Fleming and Bonwell VARK framework (effectively only visual-auditory++ "axis" of learning style)

"""
Do different teaching methods favour some VARK preferences?
Yes. Asking some students to engage in a role-play will appeal to those who have a kinesthetic preference while discussion in lectures will be more attuned to those who have a stronger component of A in their profile.
"""
from

"""
kinesthetic (K):
By definition, this modality refers to the "perceptual preference related to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real)." Although such an experience may invoke other modalities, the key is that the student is connected to reality, "either through concrete personal experiences, examples, practice or simulation" [See Fleming & Mills, 1992, pp. 140-141].
"""

from

[Note: by Fleming and the Bonwell of Bonwell and Eison fame]

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Felder info (of Felder and Silverman Index of Learning Styles)

Quote re kinesthetic learning:

"""
The ways people receive information may be divided into three categories, sometimes referred to as modalities: visualsights, pictures, diagrams, symbols; auditory sounds, words; kinesthetictaste, touch, and smell. An extensive body of research has established that most people learn most effectively with one of the three modalities and tend to miss or ignore information presented in either of the other two.13-17 There are thus visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners.*

* Visual and auditory learning both have to do with the component of the learning process in which information is perceived, while kinesthetic learning involves both information perception (touching, tasting, smelling) and information processing (moving, relating, doing something active while learning). As noted previously, the perception-related aspects of kinesthetic learning are at best marginally relevant to engineering education; accordingly, only visual and auditory modalities are addressed in this section. The processing components of the kinesthetic modality are included in the active/reflective learning style category.
"""
[from pg5]

Felder & Silverman notes

  
Active: engaged, speaking, doing (vs. reflective)

  
Sensing: Quoting

"""
Sensing involves observing, gathering data through the senses; intuition involves indirect perception by way of the unconsciousspeculation, imagination, hunches.

An important distinction is that intuitors are more comfortable with symbols than are sensors. Since words are symbols, translating them into what they represent comes naturally to intuitors and is a struggle for sensors.
"""

  
Inductive: Quoting

"""
Induction is a reasoning progression that proceeds from particulars (observations, measurements, data) to generalities (governing rules, laws, theories). Deduction proceeds in the opposite direction. In induction one infers principles; in deduction one deduces consequences.
"""

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Miscellaneous sources:

Stuart & Rutherford: classic medical student study showing peak attention followed by steep drop-off (w/no resurgence) after ~15 minutes

Bligh: broad collection of studies about lectures including showing physical signs of disengagement in lectures (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.)

Picard: "galvactinator" glove measured skin conductivity; experiment performed with different styles of presentation; lecture brings student near meditation levels of low conductivity

Piaget/Sensorimotor: internalizing physical motion into symbols

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Learning knowledge vs. learning skills vs. changing beliefs...

Bligh points out that lectures do a poor job of changing beliefs (vs, eg, discussions)

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