Editor meets silencer: crosstalk between RNA editing and RNA
Kazuko Nishikura Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7, 919-931 (December 2006)
The most prevalent type of RNA editing is mediated by ADAR (adenosine
deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which convert adenosines to inosines (a
process known as A-->I RNA editing) in double-stranded (ds)RNA substrates.
A-->I RNA editing was long thought to affect only selected transcripts by
altering the proteins they encode. However, genome-wide screening has
revealed numerous editing sites within inverted Alu repeats in introns and
untranslated regions. Also, recent evidence indicates that A-->I RNA
editing crosstalks with RNA-interference pathways, which, like A-->I RNA
editing, involve dsRNAs. A-->I RNA editing therefore seems to have
additional functions, including the regulation of retrotransposons and
gene silencing, which adds a new urgency to the challenges of fully
understanding ADAR functions.