|Presenters:||Sanja [1,2], Mirela [3,4]|
 An efficient algorithm for detecting frequent subgraphs in biological networks
Mehmet Koyutürk, Ananth Grama and Wojciech Szpankowski
Bioinformatics, Volume 20, suppl_1, Pp. i200-i207
Motivation: With rapidly increasing amount of network and interaction data in molecular biology, the problem of effectively analyzing this data is an important one. Graph theoretic formalisms, commonly used for these analysis tasks, often lead to computationally hard problems due to their relation with subgraph isomorphism.
Results: This paper presents an innovative new algorithm for detecting frequently occurring patterns and modules in biological networks. Using an innovative graph simplification technique, which is ideally suited to biological networks, our algorithm renders these problems computationally tractable. Indeed, we show experimentally that our algorithm can extract frequently occurring patterns in metabolic pathways extracted from the KEGG database within seconds. The proposed model and algorithm are applicable to a variety of biological networks either directly or with minor modifications.
 Conserved pathways within bacteria and yeast as revealed by global protein network alignment
Brian P. Kelley, Roded Sharan, Richard M. Karp, Taylor Sittler, David E. Root, Brent R. Stockwell and Trey Ideker
PNAS, September 30, 2003, vol. 100, no. 20, 11394-11399
We implement a strategy for aligning two protein-protein interaction networks that combines interaction topology and protein sequence similarity to identify conserved interaction pathways and complexes. Using this approach we show that the protein-protein interaction networks of two distantly related species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Helicobacter pylori, harbor a large complement of evolutionarily conserved pathways, and that a large number of pathways appears to have duplicated and specialized within yeast. Analysis of these findings reveals many well characterized interaction pathways as well as many unanticipated pathways, the significance of which is reinforced by their presence in the networks of both species.
 A multiple alignment algorithm for metabolic pathway analysis using enzyme hierarchy.
Tohsato Y, Matsuda H, Hashimoto A.
Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol. 2000;8:376-83.
In many of the chemical reactions in living cells, enzymes act as catalysts in the conversion of certain compounds (substrates) into other compounds (products). Comparative analyses of the metabolic pathways formed by such reactions give important information on their evolution and on pharmacological targets (Dandekar et al. 1999). Each of the enzymes that constitute a pathway is classified according to the EC (Enzyme Commission) numbering system, which consists of four sets of numbers that categorize the type of the chemical reaction catalyzed. In this study, we consider that reaction similarities can be expressed by the similarities between EC numbers of the respective enzymes. Therefore, in order to find a common pattern among pathways, it is desirable to be able to use the functional hierarchy of EC numbers to express the reaction similarities. In this paper, we propose a multiple alignment algorithm utilizing information content that is extended to symbols having a hierarchical structure. The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated by applying the method to pathway analyses of sugar, DNA and amino acid metabolisms.
 A heuristic graph comparison algorithm and its application to detect functionally related enzyme clusters.
Ogata H, Fujibuchi W, Goto S, Kanehisa M.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Oct 15;28(20):4021-8.
The availability of computerized knowledge on biochemical pathways in the KEGG database opens new opportunities for developing computational methods to characterize and understand higher level functions of complete genomes. Our approach is based on the concept of graphs; for example, the genome is a graph with genes as nodes and the pathway is another graph with gene products as nodes. We have developed a simple method for graph comparison to identify local similarities, termed correlated clusters, between two graphs, which allows gaps and mismatches of nodes and edges and is especially suitable for detecting biological features. The method was applied to a comparison of the complete genomes of 10 microorganisms and the KEGG metabolic pathways, which revealed, not surprisingly, a tendency for formation of correlated clusters called FRECs (functionally related enzyme clusters). However, this tendency varied considerably depending on the organism. The relative number of enzymes in FRECs was close to 50% for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but was <10% for SYNECHOCYSTIS: and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The FRECs collection is reorganized into a collection of ortholog group tables in KEGG, which represents conserved pathway motifs with the information about gene clusters in all the completely sequenced genomes.